The analysis, development, and/or operation of high temperature processes that involve the production of ferrous and nonferrous metals, alloys, and refractory and ceramic materials are covered in the book. The innovative methods for achieving impurity segregation and removal, by-product recovery, waste minimization, and/or energy efficiency are also involved. Eight themes are presented in the book: 1: High Efficiency New Metallurgical Technology2: Fundamental Research of Metallurgical Process 3: Alloy and Materials Preparation 4: Roasting, Reduction, and Smelting5: Sintering of Ores and Powder6: Simulation and Modeling7: Treatment of Solid Slag/Wastes and Complex Ores8: Microwave Heating, Energy, and Environment