The belief that US presidents' legislative policy formation has centralized over time, shifting inexorably out of the executive departments and into the White House, is shared by many who have studied the American presidency. Andrew Rudalevige argues that such a linear trend is neither at all certain nor necessary for policy promotion. In Managing the President's Program, he presents a far more complex picture of the use of presidential staff. Drawing on transaction cost theory, Rudalevige constructs a framework of contingent centralization to predict when presidents will use White House and/or departmental staff resources for policy formulation. He backs his assertions through a quantitative analysis of a data set of policy proposals covering almost 50 years of the postwar era from Truman to Clinton.