The aim of this book was to cast light both on non-Spartan thought and on Spartan practice. Contributors were asked to examine possible effects of images of Sparta, whether realistic or not, upon the thought of non-Spartan Greeks. Various approaches have been used. Some trace what might seem fair representation or honest misunderstanding by non-Spartans of Spartan reality. Others examine anti-Spartan invective and pro-Spartan apologia in Athenian poetry. Others again ask whether ideal systems of education and of politics, described by Athenian prose-writers, were the product of conscious extrapolation of Spartan methods: how far, in short, writers sought to commend an imaginary 'super-Sparta'.