The orthodox view is that the democracies of the western world have become increasingly secular over the 20th century. Fewer and fewer people have chosen to believe, and the church has declined markedly as religion has changed from being part of an identity ascribed at birth to being a matter of personal choice. This volume provides a detailed critique of the rational choice approach to religion to demonstrate that industrialization has secularized the western world and that diversity, far from making religion more popular by allowing individuals to maximize their returns, undermines it.